In 1935, Ed Murrow began his careerwith CBS.When World WarTwo broke out his voice brought the battle of Britain home to us through his "This Is London"radio series.He started with us all many of us here tonight,when television was in its infancy,with the news documentary show"See It Now".He threw stones at giants,segregation, exploitation of migrant workers,apartheid, J. Edgar Hoover,not the least of which, his historical fight with Senator McCarthy.He is the host of our enormously popular show "Person to Person".And tonight he is here with his son, Casey,wife, Janet, and all of you who he's worked with,inspired, lectured, and taught.
This might just do nobody any good.At the end of this discourse a few people may accuse this reporter of fouling his own comfortable nest,and your organization may be accused of having given hospitality to heretical and even dangerous ideas.
But the elaborate structure of networks advertising agencies, and sponsors will not be shaken or altered.It is my desire, if not my duty,to try to talk to you journeymen with some candor about what is happening to radio and television.
And if what I say is responsible,I alone am responsible for the saying of it.
Our history will be what we make of it.And if there are any historians about 50 or 100 years from now,and there should be preserved the kinescopes of one week of all three networks,they will there find recorded in black and white, and in color,evidence of decadence,escapism,and insulation from the realities of the world in which we live.
We are currently wealthy, fat,comfortable, and complacent.We have a built-in allergy to unpleasant or disturbing information.Our mass media reflect this.But unless we get up off our fat surpluses and recognize that television in the main is being used to distract, delude,amuse, and insulate us,then television and those who finance it,those who look at it and those who work at it may see a totally different picture too late.
数周前，报纸上发表了一些含糊的报道关于米洛 瑞杜维奇 一位现役美国空军中尉以及，关于空军规章35-62条款,规定任何与共产分子有紧密或持续接触或者被认做是同情共产主义者的,都将被视作为危险分子.瑞杜维奇中尉被要求在8月辞职,他拒绝了.一个委员会组建并开始调查,事情的结果是,虽然对于中尉的忠诚没有任何异议.可委员会仍旧建议将中尉驱逐出空军部队.力所能及地我们开始审视瑞杜维奇中尉的案件.请看记者乔 沃什 摄影师查理 麦克的报道
这位是妹妹 玛格丽特 瑞杜维奇 菲舍曼,她既不辩解、也不说明她的政治活动.不管他们怎么想,我觉得我的活动,或者我的政治信仰都是我自己的事情.我的孩子们是不是
A few weeks ago there occurred a few obscure notices in the newspapers about Milo Radulovich,a lieutenant in the Air Force Reserves.And, also, something aboutAir Force regulation 35-62,which states that a man may be regarded as a security risk if he has close and continuing association with Communists or people believed to have Communist sympathies.
Lieutenant Radulovich was asked to resign in August. He declined.
A board was called and heard his case.
At the end it was recommended that he be severed from the Air Force,although it was also stated that there was no question whatever as to the Lieutenant's loyalty.
We propose to examine,in so far as we can,the case of Lieutenant Radulovich.
Our reporter, Joe Wershba,cameraman, Charlie Mack.
This is the town of Dexter, Michigan.Population 1 500.
This statue is at the end of Ann Arbor Street erected by....
What did the General tell you yesterday?
- A Colonel. There were two of them.
- That makes a General.
They weren't too pleased.
You're gonna get audited this year.
Not me, you. I told them I didn't want to do the story.
- You always were yellow.
- Better than red.
This is the sister,Margaret Radulovich Fishman.
She neither defends nor explains her political activities.
I feel that my activities,be what they may,or my political beliefs are my own private affair.Are my children going to be asked to denounce me?Are they going to be judged on what their father was labeled?Are they going to have to explain to their friends, etc why their father is a security risk?I see, absolutely,that this is a chain reaction. If the thing is let stand as it,the first recommendation was sent out by the board.I see a chain reaction that has no end to anybody,for anybody.Perhaps you will permit me to read a few sentences because I would like to say rather precisely what I mean.
We have told the Air Force that we will provide facilities for any comments, criticisms,or corrections it may wish to make as to the case of Milo Radulovich.
We are unable to judge the charges against his father or sister because neither we, nor you,nor they, nor the lawyers,northe Lieutenant, knowwhatwas contained in that manila envelope.
Was it hearsay,rumor, gossip, slander,or hard ascertainable facts that could be backed by credible witnesses?
We do not know.
We believe the son shall not bear the iniquity of the father.
Even though that iniquity be proved and in this case it was not.
But we believe too that this case illustrates the urgent need for the Armed Forces to communicate more fully than they have so far done the procedures and regulations to be followed in attempting to protect the national security and the rights of the individual at the same time.
Whatever happens in this area of the relationship between the individual and the state,we will do it ourselves,it cannot be blamed on Malenkov or Mao Tse-Tung or even our allies.
And, it seems to us, Fred Friendly and myself,that this is a subject that should be argued about endlessly.
Good night, and good luck.
Because a report on Senator McCarthy is by definition controversial,we want to say exactly what we mean to say and request your permissionto read from a script whatever remarks Murrow and Friendly may make.
If the Senator feels that we have done violence to his words or pictures and desires to answer himself,an opportunity will be afforded him on this program.Our working thesis tonight is this quotation:.."If this fight against Communism has made a fight between America's two great political parties,theAmerican people know that one of these parties will be destroyed and the Republic cannot endure very long as a one-party system."
We applaud that statement and we think Senator McCarthy ought to.He said it 17 months ago in Milwaukee.TheAmerican people realize that this cannot be made a fight between America's two great political parties.
If this fight against Communism is made a fight againstAmerica's two great political parties,theAmerican people know that one
of those parties will be destroyed and the Republic can't endure very long as a one-party system.On one thing the Senator has been consistent.
Often operating as a one-man committee, he has traveled far,interviewed many,terrorized some,accused civilian and military leaders of the past administration of a great conspiracy to turn over the country to Communism.I was extremely shocked when I heard that Secretary Stevens told 2Army officers that they had to take part in the cover up of those who promoted
and coddled Communists.
As I read his statement, I thought of that quotation,"On what meat doth this our Caesar feed?".The questions is:did the Civil Liberties Union supply you with an attorney?
- They did supply an attorney.
- The answer is yes?
The answer is yes.
Do you think this book did considerable harm?
Its publication,by an expression of the views contained in it?
The sale of that book was so abysmally small,it was so unsuccessful,that the question of its influence you can go back to the publisher,you'll see it was one of the most unsuccessful books he ever put out.He's still sorry about it,just as I am.
Well, I thinkthat's a compliment toAmerican intelligence.I'll say that.The Reed Harris hearing demonstrates one of the Senator's techniques.
Twice he said,"The American Civil Liberties Union was listed as a subversive front."The Attorney General's list does not and never has listed theACLU as subversive,nor does the FBI,or any other federal government agency.And the American Civil Liberties Union holds in its files letters of commendation from President Truman,President Eisenhower,and General MacArthur.
Earlier, the Senator asked, "Upon what meat does this our Caesar feed?".Had he looked three lines earlier in Shakespeare's "Caesar"he would have found this line,which is not altogether inappropriate."The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, but in ourselves."
No one familiar with the history of this country can deny that Congressional committees are useful.It is necessary to investigate
before legislating,but the line between investigating and persecuting is a very fine one and the junior Senator from Wisconsin
has stepped over it repeatedly.We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty.We must remember always that accusation is not proof and that conviction depends upon evidence and due process of law.
We will not walk in fear,one of another.We will not be driven by fear into an age of unreason if we dig deep in our history and doctrine,and remember that we are not descended from fearful men,not from men who feared to write,to associate, to speak,and to defend the causesthat were for the moment unpopular.
This is no time for men who oppose Senator McCarthy's methods to keep silent,or for those who approve.We can deny our heritage and our history,but we cannot escape responsibility for the results.We proclaim ourselves,indeed as we are,the defenders of freedom wherever it continues to exist in the world,but we cannot defend freedom abroad by deserting it at home.
The actions of the junior Senator from Wisconsin have caused alarm and dismay amongst our allies abroad and given considerable comfort to our enemies.And whose fault is that?Not really his.He didn't create this situation of fear,he merely exploited it,and rather successfully.
Cassius was right."The fault, dear Brutus, is notin our stars, but in ourselves."
Good night, and good luck.
Edward R. Murrow's television program on Senator Joseph R. McCarthy was an exciting and provocative examination of the man and his methods.It was crusading journalism of high responsibility and courage.For TV so often plagued by timidity and hesitation,the program was a milestone that reflected enlightened citizenship.The program was no less an indictment of those who wish the problems posed by the Senator's tactics and theatrics would just go away and leave them alone.That was Mr. Murrow's and television's triumph.
Last week, Senator McCarthy appeared on this program to correct any errors he might have thought we made in our report of March 9th.
Since he made no reference to any statements of fact that we made,we must conclude that he found no errors of fact.He proved again that anyone who exposes him,anyone who doesn't share his disregard for decency and human dignity and the rights guaranteed by the Constitution must be either a Communist or a fellow traveler.
I fully expected this treatment.The Senator added this reporter's name to a long list of individuals and institutions he has accused of serving the Communist cause.Anyone who criticizes or opposes Senator McCarthy's methods must be a Communist.
And if that be true, there are an awful lot of Communists in the USA.
For the record, let's consider briefly some of the Senator's charges.He claimed, but offered no proof,that I had been a member of the Industrial Workers of the World.That is false.I was never a member of the IWW,never applied for membership.
The Senator chargedthat Professor Harold Laski,a British scholar and politician,dedicated a book to me.That's true.He is dead.He was a socialist, I am not.He was a civilized individual who did not insist upon agreement with his political principles as a pre-condition for conversation or friendship.I do not agree with his political ideas.Laski, as he makes clear in the introduction,dedicated the book to me,not because of political agreement,but because he held my wartime broadcast from London in high regard.And the dedication so reads.
I believed 20 years ago and I believe today that mature Americans can engage in conversation and controversy,the clash of ideas, with Communists anywhere in the world without becoming contaminated or converted.I believe that our faith,our conviction,our determination are stronger than theirs and that we can successfully compete,not only in the area of bombs,but in the area of ideas.
I have worked with CBS for more than 19 years.The company has subscribed fully to my integrity and responsibility as a broadcaster and as a loyal American.I require no lectures from the junior Senator from Wisconsin as to the dangers or terrors of Communism.
Having searched my conscience and my files,I cannot contend that I have always been right or wise,but I have attempted to pursue the truth with diligence and to report it,even though, as in this case,I had been warned in advance that I would be subjected to the attentions of Senator McCarthy.We shall hope to deal with matters of more vital interest next week.
Good night, and good luck.
We are proud because from the beginning of this nation man can walk upright.No matter who he is or who she is.He can walk upright and meet his friend or his enemy.And he does not fear that because that enemy may be in a position of great power that he can be suddenly thrown in jail to rot there without charges and with no recourse to justice.
We have the Habeas CorpusAct and we respect it.I began by saying that our history will be what we make it.If we go on as we are,then history will take its revenge,and retribution will not limp in catching up with us.
Just once in a while, let us exalt the importance of ideas and information.Let us dream to the extent of saying that on a given Sunday night the time normally occupied by Ed Sullivan is given over to a clinical survey on the state of American education.And a weekor two later, the time normally used by Steve Allen is devoted to a thorough-going study of American policy in the Middle East.Would the corporate image of their respective sponsors be damaged?Would the shareholders rise up in their wrath and complain?Would anything happen other than a few million people would have received a little illumination on subjects that may well determine the future of this country and therefore the future of the corporations?
To those who say, "People wouldn't look, they wouldn't be interested,they're too complacent,indifferent and insulated".
.I can only reply: there is,in one reporter's opinion,considerable evidence against that contention.But even if they are right,what have they got to lose?Because if they are right,and this instrument is good for nothing but to entertain,amuse and insulate,then the tube isflickering now and we will soon see that the whole struggle is lost.This instrument can teach.It can illuminate and it can even inspire. But it can do so only to the extent that humans are determined to use it towards those ends.
Otherwise, it is merely wires and lights in a box.
Good night, and good luck.